Dissociation Of A Diatomic Molecule

The vibrating hydrogen molecule is hit with a beam of light which has sufficient energy to break the bond and cause the atoms to separate. The separated atoms have a greater energy than the molecule. Thus, the molecule is stable relative to its constituent atoms.

The Change In Electron Density And Bond Polarity From Cl2 To NaCl

Here the effect of electronegativity on bond polarity is shown for the third period elements. In the chlorine molecule the electron density is evenly shared between the atoms. However, as the electronegativity of the atom attached to chlorine decreases; that is, the electronegativity difference between the atoms increase, the electron density is more and more unevenly distributed. Finally, in sodium chloride, the chlorine has latched onto one additional electron, leaving the sodium with one less electron. In other words, in sodium chloride the sodium exists as a cation and the chlorine exists as an anion. There is no sharing of electron density between the sodium and chlorine.

The Formation Of SP Hybrid Orbitals From A P-Orbital And An S-Orbital

The formation of sp hybrid orbitals is demonstrated by superimposing an s and a p-orbital. The plus and minus signs indicate the sign of the wave function. For example, the equation for the s-orbital has a positive sign everywhere. When the orbitals are superimposed the positive areas reinforce one another while the positive and negative areas cancel. Hence, the addition of an s-orbital and a p-orbital leads to a build up of electron density on one side of the nucleus and a reduction on the other. Subtraction of the p-orbital is done by changing the signs of the two lobes. Hence for the other sp orbital the electron density builds up on the other side of the nucleus.

SP2 Hybridization Utilizes Two P-Orbitals And One S-Orbital

Just as in the previous animation, the lobes of the orbials represent a mathematical function that has a sign. p-Orbitals have lobes that alway have opposite signs, while s-orbitals have a positive sign everywhere.